Primitive Rana Tharu Tribal Spike Collar Kanthshri Necklace Nepal #1054

Primitive Rana Tharu Tribal Spike Collar Kanthshri Necklace Nepal #1054

$330.00

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Primitive Rana Tharu

Tribal Spike Collar Kanthshri Necklace Nepal #1054

1054. Primitive Rana Tharu Tribal Spike Collar Kanthshri Necklace from Nepal.

Dimensions:Approximately 18″ long with some 29 spikes along the length.

Condition: In very good condition for age which is estimated to be early 1900’s.

Some interesting background on the Tharu culture and people.

The Tharu people (Devanagari:थारू, Thārū) are an ethnic group indigenous to the Terai, the southern foothills of the Himalayas in Nepal and India.[5] The Tharus are recognized as an official nationality by the Governments of Nepal and India.[6]

As of 2011, the Tharu population of Nepal was censused at 1,737,470 people, or 6.6% of the total population.[2] In 2009, the majority of Tharu people were estimated to live in Nepal.[7] There are several endogamous sub-groups of Tharu:[8]

Rana Tharu in the Kailali and Kanchanpur districts of the far western Nepal Terai; also in India, in Nainital, Uttarakhand and Kheri Terai, Uttar Pradesh. Rana Tharu claim Rajput origin.[9]
Kathoriya Tharu mostly in Kailali District and in India.[10]
Sonha in Surkhet district[11]
Dangaura Tharu in western Terai: Dang-Deukhuri, Banke, Bardia, Kailali and Kanchanpur districts[12]
Paschuhan (Western) Tharu Rupandehi, Nawalparasi
Rautar Tharu Rupandehi, Nawalparasi
Purbaha Tharu Rupandehi, Kapilvastu
Aarkutwa or Chitwania Tharu in central Terai: Sindhuli, Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts[13]
Kochila Tharu in eastern Terai: Saptari, Bara, Parsa, Rautahat, Sarlahi, Mahottari and Udayapur Districts[14]
Danuwar in eastern Terai: Udayapur, Saptari and Morang districts.[15]
Lampucchwa Tharu in Morang District[16]
Pahalman Tharu, especially in inner terai such as Udayapur District of Nepal
Smaller numbers of Tharu people reside in the adjacent Indian districts Champaran of Bihar state; Gorakhpur, Basti and Gonda of Uttar Pradesh state; and Nainital, Uttarakhand state.[5] In 2001, Tharu people were the largest of five scheduled tribes in Uttarakhand, with a population of 256,129 accounting for 33.4% of all scheduled tribes.[3] In the same year, they constituted 77.4% of the total tribal population of Uttar Pradesh with a population of 83,544.[4]

Culture

Tharu village near Bardia National Park

A Tharu man

The Tharu people themselves say that they are a people of the forest. In Chitwan, they have lived in the forests for hundreds of years practicing a short fallow shifting cultivation. They plant rice, mustard, corn and lentils, but also collect forest products such as wild fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants and materials to build their houses; hunt deer, rabbit and wild boar, and go fishing in the rivers and oxbow lakes.[8]

The Tharus never went abroad for employment – a life that kept them isolated in their own localities.[17] In this isolation they developed a unique culture free from the influence of adjacent India, or from the mountain groups of Nepal. The most striking aspects of their environment are the decorated rice containers, colorfully painted verandahs and outer walls of their homes using only available materials like clay, mud, dung and grass. Much of the rich design is rooted in devotional activities and passed on from one generation to the next, occasionally introducing contemporary elements such as a bus or an airplane.[18] The Deukheri Tharu are known for their colorful, shell and/or feather decorated basketry, including ram topne water jug covers.

Household structure

In the western Terai, most Rana Tharu prefer living in Badaghar called longhouses with big families of many generations, sometimes 40-50 people. All household members pool their labor force, contribute their income, share the expenditure and use one kitchen.[19]

Social structure

Tharus from the mid west and far west of Nepal have been practicing the Badghar system, where a Badghar is elected chief of a village or a small group of villages for a year. The election generally takes place in the month of Magh (January / February), after celebrating the Maghi Festival and after completing major farming activities. In most cases, each household in the village which engages in farming has one voting right for electing a Badghar. Thus the election is based on a count of households count rather than a headcount. The role of the Badghar is to work for the welfare of the village. The Badghar direct the villagers to repair canals or streets when needed. They also oversee and manages the cultural traditions of the villages. They have an authority of punishing those who do not follow their orders or who go against the welfare of the village. Generally the Badghar has a Chaukidar to help him. With the consent of the villagers the Badghar may appoint a”Guruwa” who is the medic and chief priest of the village.

As Tharus society is mainly involved in farming, irrigation is one of the most important aspects of the community. Tharus in western Nepal built canals that irrigate thousands of hectares of land. Hundreds of years ago, without using any sophisticated tools, they built hundreds of kilometers of irrigation canals in the Kailali and Bardiya districts of Nepal. An irrigation canal could be used by several villages. Its water and diversion works need to be managed fairly. For this purpose, the Badghars of different villages elect a person for the position of Chaudhary to manage a canal system. When needed, the Chaudhary orders the Badghars to send people to repair or build the canals. In most cases the Badghars and Chaudharis are unpaid leaders of the community. However, they are exempt from compulsory physical labor for the betterment of the society. As a token of respect, the community members may also help them in farming for a day free of cost.

Language

There is no one Tharu language unifying Tharu communities in different parts of Nepal and India. Several speak various endemic Tharu languages. In western Nepal and adjacent parts of India, Tharus speak variants of Hindi/Urdu and Awadhi. In and near central Nepal, they speak a variant of Bhojpuri. In eastern Nepal, they speak a variant of Maithili. More standard versions of these dialects are widely spoken by non-Tharu neighbors in the same areas so that there are no important linguistic barriers between Tharus and their neighbors. However, there are linguistic barriers between these dialects standing in the way of communication between Tharus from different regions.[20]

Tharu were already living in the Terai before Indo-Europeans arrived, raising the question of what they may have been speaking at that time. The only surviving pre-Indo-European language in the Terai is Kusunda, Santhali further west.

Tharu food

food item of Ghonghi
Tharu people of Nepal has different and own food items like Dhikri, Ghonghi . Dhikri is made of rice flour. The dough from the rice flour is given different shapes – many are stick-like but some are also given the shapes of birds, fish and animals. It is cooked over steam and eaten together with chutney or curry. Ghonghi is a type of edible snail sourced from nearby water sources. The ghonghi are left overnight so that all the gooey materials inside them comes out. Their tail-end is cut so that it is easier to suck out the meat out of the shell. They are then boiled and later cooked like curry adding spices like coriander, chilies, garlic, onions and so on.

Marriage system
Traditionally, marriages were often arranged during the pregnancies of two women. If they gave birth to opposite sex babies, the two babies were supposed to be married if they grew up as friends. It was problematic if a boy or girl came of age and rejected their assigned fiance(e). Finding a replacement was difficult because most girls and boys were already engaged. However this custom has been disappearing. Most Tharus now practice conventional arranged marriages. They also practice love marriages, inter caste marriage, marriage after courtship and eloping.

Religion
The spiritual beliefs and moral values of the Tharu people are closely linked to the natural environment. The pantheon of their gods comprises a large number of deities that live in the forest. They are asked for support before entering the forest.[8]

According to the 2001 Census of Nepal, 87.63% of the Tharu people were Hindus whereas 13.95% were Buddhists.[citation needed]

Resistance to malaria

The Tharu were famous for their ability to survive in the most malarial parts of the Terai that were deadly to outsiders. In 1902, a British observer noted: “Plainsmen and paharis generally die if they sleep in the Terai before November 1 or after June 1.” Others thought that the Tharu were not totally immune.[20]

Contemporary medical research comparing Tharu with other ethnic groups living nearby found an incidence of malaria nearly seven times lower among Tharu.[21] The researchers believed such a large difference pointed to genetic factors rather than behavioral or dietary differences. This was confirmed by follow-up investigation finding genes for thalassemia in nearly all Tharu studied.[22]

History

The origin of the Tharu people is not clear but surrounded by myths and oral tradition. The Rana Tharus claim to be of Rajput origin and have migrated from the Thar Desert to Nepal’s Far Western Terai region. Tharu people farther east claim to be descendants of the Śākya and Koliya peoples living in Kapilvastu.[23]

Modern history (1846-1999)

In 1854, Jung Bahadur Rana, the then Prime Minister of Nepal, enforced the Muluki Ain (General Code of Nepal|General Code), Nepal’s first legal system. It comprised applications of traditional Hindu Law and clauses to accommodate ethnic practises. In the Muluki Ain both Hindus and Non-Hindus were classified as castes based on their habits of food and drink.[24] Tharu people were considered “enslavable alcohol drinkers” together with several other ethnic minorities.[25]

In the 1950s, the World Health Organisation supported the Nepalese government in eradicating malaria in the forests of Terai. People from hills migrated to the Terai and claimed the fertile land. Tharus lost their traditional land and became slaves of the new landowners. This resulted in the development of the Kamaiya system of bonding generations of Tharu families to labour.[26]

When the first protected areas were established in Chitwan, Tharu communities were forced to relocate from their traditional lands. They were denied any right to own land and thus forced into a situation of landlessness and poverty. When the Chitwan National Park was designated, Nepalese soldiers destroyed the villages located inside the boundary of the park, burned down houses, and beat the people who tried to plough their fields. Some threatened Tharu people at gun point to leave.[8]

Recent history (2000-present)

The Government of Nepal outlawed the practice of bonded labor prevalent under the Kamaiya system on July 17, 2000, which prohibits anyone from employing any person as a bonded laborer, and declared that the act of making one work as a bonded laborer is illegal.[26] Though democracy has been reinstated in the country, the Tharu community has called for a more inclusive democracy as they are fearful of remaining an underprivileged group.[27] (Source: Wikipedia)

References

1. Turner, R. L. (1961). A Comparative and Etymological Dictionary of the Nepali Language. London: Routledge.
2. Central Bureau of Statistics (2012). National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report) (PDF). Government of Nepal, National Planning Commission Secretariat, Kathmandu. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 18, 2013.
3. Office of the Registrar General, India (2001). “Uttaranchal. Data Highlights: The Scheduled Tribes. Census of India 2001” (PDF). Retrieved 2008-03-16.
4.Office of the Registrar General, India (2001). “Uttar Pradesh. Data Highlights: The Scheduled Tribes. Census of India 2001” (PDF).
5.Rajaure, D. P. (1981). “Tharus of Dang: The people and the social context” (PDF). Kailash. Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar. 8 (3/4): 155–185.
6. Lewis, M. P. (2009). “Tharu, Chitwania: a language of Nepal”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Dallas: SIL International. Archived from the original on September 13, 2010.
7. Central Bureau of Statistics (2009). “Chapter 1: Area and Population; Table 1.7: Population Distribution by Caste/Ethnic Groups and Sex for Nepal, 2001”. Statistical Year Book of Nepal 2009. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal.
8. McLean, J. (1999). “Conservation and the impact of relocation on the Tharus of Chitwan, Nepal.”. Himalayan Research Bulletin, XIX (2): 38-44.
9. M. P., G. F. Simons, and C. D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Tharu, Rana: a language of Nepal”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version.
10. Lewis, M. P., G. F. Simons, and C. D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Tharu, Kathoriya: a language of Nepal”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition.
11. Lewis, M. P., G. F. Simons, and C. D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Sonha, a language of Nepal”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version.
12. Lewis, M. P., G. F. Simons, and C. D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Tharu, Dangaura: a language of Nepal”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version.
13. Lewis, M. P., G. F. Simons, and C. D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Tharu, Chitwania: a language of Nepal”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version.
14. Lewis, M. P., G. F. Simons, and C. D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Tharu, Kochila: a language of Nepal”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version.
15. Lewis, M. P., G. F. Simons, and C. D. Fennig (eds.) (2014). “Dhanwar: a language of Nepal”. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Seventeenth edition. Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Online version.
16. Krauskopff, G. (1995). “The anthropology of the Tharus: an annotated bibliography” (PDF). Kailash. Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar. 17 (3/4): 189–190. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
17. Gurung, G.M. (1992). “Socioeconomic Network of a Terai Village: An account of the Rana Tharus of Urma-Urmi” (PDF). Contributions to Nepalese Studies, Vol. 19, No. 1.
18. Meyer, K. W., Deuel, P. (1997). “The Tharu of the Tarai”. Indigo Gallery, Kathmandu. Retrieved 2006-12-07.
19. Lam, L. M. (2009). “Park, hill migration and changes in household livelihood systems of Rana Tharus in Far-western Nepal.” (PDF). University of Adelaide. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 28, 2011.
20. Guneratne, A. (2002). Many Tongues, One People: The Making of Tharu Identity in Nepal. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. ISBN 0801487285.
21. Terrenato, L.; Shrestha, S.; Dixit, K. A.; Luzzatto, L.; Modiano, G.; Morpurgo, G.; Arese, P. (1988). “Decreased Malaria Morbidity in the Tharu People Compared to Sympatric Populations in Nepal”. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology. 82 (1): 1–11. PMID 3041928.
22. Modiano, G., Morpurgo, G., Terrenato, L., Novelletto, A., Di Rienzo, A., Colombo, B., Purpura, M., Marianit, M., Santachiara-Benerecetti, S., Brega, A., Dixit, K. A., Shrestha, S. L., Lania, A., Wanachiwanawin, W. and L. Luzzatto (1991). “Protection against Malaria Morbidity – Near Fixation of the Alpha Thalassemia Gene in a Nepalese Population” (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics. 48 (2): 390–397. PMC 1683029Freely accessible. PMID 1990845.
23. Skar, H. O. (1995). Myths of origin: the Janajati Movement, local traditions, nationalism and identities in Nepal. Contributions to Nepalese Studies 22 (1): 31–42.
24. Stiller, L. F. (1993). Nepal: Growth of a Nation. Human Resources Development Research Center, Kathmandu.
25. Gurung, H. (2005). Social exclusion and Maoist insurgency. Paper presented at National Dialogue Conference on ILO Convention 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples, Kathmandu, 19–20 January 2005.
26. World Organization Against Torture (2006). “The Kamaiya System of Bonded Labour in Nepal” (PDF). A study prepared by the World Organization Against Torture for the International Conference Poverty, Inequality and Violence: is there a human rights response? Geneva, 4–6 October 2005.[dead link]
27. Gorkhapatra Sansthan (2007). “Tharu community calls for inclusive democracy”. The Rising Nepal. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2006-12-07. (Source Wikipedia)

 

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Dennis Brining of Cultural Patina - Fairfax Station, Virginia, USA

Dennis Brining of CulturalPatina Gallery – Virginia, USA

Dennis has had a passion for collecting all things beautiful and unique his entire life and would like to share some of these items with others having a similar interest through his Culturalpatina Gallery. The gallery has representative items from the American Southwest, Asia, Middle East, Central and South America, and Nagaland in North Eastern India.

Dennis strives to offer the best items that he has collected or can find for sale to both the casual and/or discriminating collector of unique cultural items from each of these areas of the world. He also tries to focus on vintage, prehistoric, and historic items if he can find them. His primary interest is in pottery, textiles/weavings, western art, bronze sculptures, and extraordinary pieces of adornment. The gallery currently has the work of over 40 artists in these areas of interest.

Culturalpatina Gallery has the largest collection of Ron Stewart art in the world, and represents Ron on the East Coast. Here you will find some of his earliest paintings to some of his most recent ones that have not been shown in public.

Culturalpatina Gallery also has the second largest collection of authentic Naga Indian Art in the US. It is all authentic, meaning that it was made by the Naga and used in their cultural ceremonies. The majority of the items shown were collected prior to 1982, when the Naga converted to Christianity and are museum quality.

Culturalpatina’s Market items on Artizan link over to the shop on Etsy. The selection here on Artizan is an example of a much larger collection. If this item has sold, you should be able to find something similar in the same price range in the main shop. Do not hesitate to contact Dennis with any questions.

CulturalPatina Gallery

I have had a passion for collecting all things beautiful and unique my entire life and would like to share these items with others having a similar interest. I have representative items from the American South West, Asia, Central and South America, East Africa and Nagaland in North Eastern India. I strive to offer the best items that I have collected or can find for sale from numerous sources to the discriminating collector of unique cultural items from each of these areas of the world. My primary interest is in pottery, textiles, bronze sculptures, and extraordinary pieces of adornment. All sales are via the internet only. Products from my shop here on Artizan Made link over to my shop on Etsy.

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